Objective To evaluate the construction effect of a national comprehensive prevention and control demonstration area for chronic diseases in a banner county in Inner Mongolia, and to provide a scientific basis for deepening the construction of the demonstration area and improving the formulation of chronic disease prevention and control strategies and measures. Methods Using the chronic disease nutrition monitoring data of residents aged 18 and over in a banner county in Inner Mongolia in 2015 and 2018, the prevalence, awareness, and management and treatment rates of the main chronic diseases of residents with different characteristics, as well as the changes in healthy behaviors and lifestyles were compared and analyzed. SPSS25.0 software was used for data analysis. The classification variables were mainly described by rate and composition ratio. The comparison of rates of various indicators between the two years was performed using c2 test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze statistical correlation between the continuous construction of the demonstration area from 2015 to 2018 and the various indicators. The test level was α=0.05. Results In 2015 and 2018, 621 and 600 residents aged 18 and above were investigated respectively. The prevalence of diabetes (8.17%) and the prevalence of dyslipidemia (28.13%) of residents in the demonstration area in 2018 were lower than those in the demonstration area in 2015 (12.08% and54.91%, respectively), and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In 2018, the diabetes awareness rate (71.43%), diabetes treatment rate (71.43%), diabetes management rate (38.78%), and dyslipidemia awareness rate (51.50%) of residents in the demonstration area were higher than those in the demonstration area in 2015 (42.67%, 42.67%, 13.33%, and 31.09%, respectively), and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In 2018, the current smoking rate (20.83%) of residents in the demonstration area, the drinking rate within one year (31.67%), insufficient intake of fresh vegetables (51.00%), and excessive intake of edible salt (47.83%) were all lower than those of residents in the demonstration area in 2015 (30.43%, 45.57%, 71.18%, and 78.42%, respectively), and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the continuous construction of the demonstration area was statistically correlated with dyslipidemia (OR=0.31, 95%CI: 0.24-0.39), diabetes awareness (OR=3.92, 95%CI: 1.68-9.12), diabetes treatment ( OR=4.53, 95%CI: 1.75-11.70), diabetes management (OR=5.82, 95%CI: 1.94-17.52), awareness of dyslipidemia (OR=1.57, 95%CI: 1.04-2.38), current smoking (OR =0.60, 95%CI: 0.44-0.82), drinking within one year (OR=0.46, 95%CI: 0.35-0.61), and insufficient intake of fresh vegetables (OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.35-0.58). Conclusion The construction of a national demonstration zone for comprehensive prevention and control of chronic diseases can significantly reduce the prevalence of major chronic diseases among residents in a banner county in Inner Mongolia, improve the self-management level of patients with chronic diseases, and promote the development of healthy behaviors and lifestyles.