JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
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    2022,33(3):1-5, DOI:
    Abstract:
    At present, the incidence and mortality of cancers are increasing year by year, which has become a major global public health problem and the main cause of death of global population. In recent years, studies have shown that branched-chain amino acids levels play an important part in the incidence and prognosis of some malignant tumors, such as colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer and so on. Therefore, this article summarizes the studies on the relationship between the level of branched-chain amino acids and cancers, providing clues for further exploration of the correlation between the two.
    2022,33(3):6-11, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To investigate the role of TRIM65 on DSS induced colitis and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Trim65+/+ and Trim65-/- mice were administered with 3% (w/v) DSS in their drinking water for 5 consecutive days and then were switched to sterile water for 2 days. DSS treated mice were monitored daily for the clinical symptoms (bodyweight, stool consistency and rectal bleeding score). Mice were sacrificed on day 7 to measure colon length. Colon homogenates were collected to measure MPO activity and detect cleaved caspase-1 and mature IL-1β by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Trim65-/- mice were intraperitoneally injected with NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor MCC950, and were given the above treatment to determine the effect of MCC950 on colitis in Trim65-/- mice. Results The results showed that deletion of Trim65 significantly enhanced weight loss and colon shortening in DSS mice, increased disease activity index and histopathological score, induced the activity of MPO, and promoted the F4/80+ immune cell infiltration, the activation of caspase-1 and the secretion of mature IL-1b in the colon of DSS mice. The NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 alleviated DSS induced colitis symptoms and inflammation levels in trim65 deficient mice. Conclusion TRIM65 plays an anti-inflammatory role in DSS induced colitis mice by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.
    2022,33(3):12-16, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To explore the development trend and influencing factors of major diseases of urban residents, and to construct a prediction model of _heart disease mortality. Methods One-way analysis of variance (Duncan’s test at a = 0.05) and correlation analysis were used to analyze the significant differences between the different categories of disease mortality and the correlation with the influencing factors. The exponential function was used to fit the relationship between the proportion of the elderly population and the death rate of heart disease at various stages, and the prediction model of heart disease mortality was constructed through the stepwise regression equation. Results The mortality rate of heart disease and cerebrovascular disease showed a rising trend. The incidence of the four major diseases in men was significantly higher than that in women (P < 0.05). The mortality of urban residents from malignant tumors was correlated with the discharge of solid waste (P < 0.05). The proportion of the elderly population at each stage was highly correlated most with the death rate of heart disease (P < 0.01), except for the elderly population of 80+ years old, which was correlated with the mortality of cerebrovascular disease (P < 0.05). Incorporating the proportions of the elderly at each stage into the stepwise regression analysis to construct a heart disease mortality prediction model obtained extremely high accuracy (R2 > 98, P <0.01). Conclusion According to the results of the survey, the influencing factors of major diseases and the high-risk population should be focused on prevention and treatment. It is recommended that the prevention and treatment of heart disease is carried out for the aged 60+ and the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases is carried out for the aged 80.
    2022,33(3):17-21, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To establish macrosomia risk prediction models based on a cohort study, and to analyze and compare the results. Methods The research subjects were the pregnant women of the Chinese Pregnant Women Cohort Study. The general demographic information and clinical data of pregnant women were collected through the questionnaire and physical examination, and the related outcomes of newborns were obtained by follow-up. The dataset was divided into training set and test set by a 3:1 ratio. Multivariate logistic regression analysis (LR) and random forest algorithm (RF) were used to construct macrosomia risk prediction models in the training set, and the models were verified in the test set. The prediction efficiency of the models was evaluated by Kappa and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Results Among 5544 pregnant women, 397 women delivered macrosomia, and the incidence of macrosomia was 7.16%. Among the pregnant women who delivered macrosomia, 10.08% (40/397) were over 35 years old, 27.46% (109/397) were overweight or obese, and 60.96% (242/397) were excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). LR was used to establish a macrosomia risk prediction model to predict the test set, with the accuracy of 0.716, the sensitivity of 0.719, the specificity of 0.715, the Kappa value of 0.428, the Yoden index of 0.393, and the AUC of 0.796 (95% CI: 0.777-0.815). RF was used to construct a risk prediction model to predict the test set, with the accuracy of 0.819, the sensitivity of 0.782, the specificity of 0.846, the Kappa value of 0.629, the Yoden index of 0.439, and the AUC of 0.897 (95% CI: 0.883-0.910). Conclusion The prediction effect of the two models is satisfactory. The random forest algorithm has a higher predictive effect on the risk of macrosomia in this cohort, but the multivariate logistic regression analysis can directly explain the influencing factors of the macrosomia. It is suggested to integrate the advantages of the two models in the future, so that they can play a more important role in macrosomia risk prediction.
    2022,33(3):22-27, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To explore the relationship between the distribution characteristics and the habitat factors of the invasive B. straminea in South China. Methods From October 2016 to August 2017, the breeding condition and habitat factors of B. straminea were investigated in the rivers of Shenzhen and its adjacent areas in the dry season, normal season and wet reason. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to study the main habitat factors affecting the distribution density of B. straminea. Results The distribution characteristics of B. straminea showed obvious aggregation and unevenness in space. In terms of time, the density of snails was the highest in the dry season, followed by the normal water season and the least in the wet season. The GAM model analysis showed that the main habitat factors affecting the distribution density of B. straminea were water depth, water temperature, flow velocity, dissolved oxygen, and total phosphorus. When the flow velocity and water temperature were 0.25 m / s and 26 °C, respectively, the largest distribution density of snails might appear. The distribution density of B. straminea was positively correlated with dissolved oxygen and total phosphorus. Conclusion B. straminea is suitable to live in the water environment with poor water quality. In the future, the monitoring should be strengthened to provide reference for the prevention and control of the spread of the snails.
    2022,33(3):28-32, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To understand the death status, mortality trend, cause of death and life loss of injury and poisoning among residents in Qidong City, Jiangsu Province from 1990 to 2019, and to provide a reference for formulating public health policies. Methods Data on injury and poisoning death of residents in Qidong City from 1990 to 2019 were collected through the death cause registration and monitoring system of Qidong City, Jiangsu Province. Indicators such as crude death rate (CR) and standardized death rate (CASR), average years of lost life (AYLL), and potential years of life lost rate (PYLLR) were calculated. Annual percentage change (APC) was used to analyze the trend of death from injury and poisoning. Results From 1990 to 2019, 18 163 residents in Qidong City, Jiangsu Province died of injuries and poisoning. The CR was 53.12/100 000 (APC=0.74%), and the CASR was 39.43/100 000 (APC=-1.86%). The male CR was 66.90 100 000 (APC=0.75%), and the male CASR was 52.42/100 000 (APC=-1.75%), while the female CR was 39.69/100 000 (APC=0.73%), and the female CASR was 26.63/100 000 (APC=-2.14%). Analysis of the standardized mortality rate showed a downward trend year by year (P<0.001). PYLL caused by injury and poisoning was 318 502.50 person-years (APC=-4.00%), AYLL was 26.02 years/person (APC=-3.26%) and the PYLLR was 10.39‰ (APC=-3.54%). The top five death causes of injury and poisoning are motor vehicle accidents, suicide, drowning, accidental falls and accidental poisoning, accounting for 87.17% of the total deaths from injuries and poisoning. Drowning was the leading cause of death for children aged from 0 to 14. Motor vehicle accidents were the leading cause of death for residents aged from 15 to 64, and accidental falls were the leading cause of death for residents over 65. Conclusion Injury and poisoning are one of the main causes of death among residents in Qidong City, Jiangsu Province. The distribution characteristics of injurie and poisoning deaths of different genders and ages are different. According to their distribution characteristics, targeted and specific measures should be taken to reduce mortality.
    2022,33(3):33-36, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To analyze the status of hepatitis B and BCG vaccination in children with special health status, and analyze the reasons for the delay of vaccination, so as to improve the timely vaccination rate. Methods A total of 1 129 children with special health status who were registered and vaccinated in our hospital from September 1, 2018 to January 23, 2020 were selected. All children were classified according to the major diseases based on the discharge records. The first injection time of hepatitis B and BCG vaccine was extracted, and the children were divided into different groups based on the number of people who delayed vaccination. The comparison between groups was performed by χ2 test. Results A total of 87 children without hepatitis B vaccination and 85 children without BCG vaccination were immediately vaccinated in our hospital after the establishment of the archives in our hospital. None of the 1 129 children with special health status had serious adverse reactions after vaccination. The most common diseases in the delayed hepatitis B vaccination children were premature infants, cardiovascular diseases, and nervous system diseases. The most common diseases in the delayed BCG vaccination children were premature infants, cardiovascular diseases, and neonatal disease. There was a significant difference between the number of delayed hepatitis B vaccination and the number of delayed BCG vaccination, with the number of delayed BCG vaccination being more (χ2=278.24, P<0.00). Conclusion Delayed vaccinations are common in children with special health status. Normal vaccination does not increase the incidence of adverse reactions in children with special health status. Medical staff’s understanding of diseases, types of diseases, and types of vaccines are important factors affecting the vaccination of children with special health conditions. Support from social environment, the understanding and cooperation from children's parents and guardians, and the understanding of medical workers on vaccines and diseases are the keys to truly improve the vaccination rate of children.
    2022,33(3):37-40, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To investigate the vaccine efficacy (VE) of two doses of inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine on severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in eligible children. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted in this project. A total of 109 patients with EV71 severe HFMD aged between 6 months to 5 years old who were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Guangxi Maternity and Child Health Hospital from September 2016 to September 2020, and reported to the Chinese Disease Prevention and Control Information System were selected as the case group. According to 1:1 matching,109 healthy children aged between 6 months to 5 years old were selected as the control group. The vaccine efficacy of EV71 inactivated vaccine was calculated. Results The vaccination rate of the two doses of inactivated EV71 vaccine in the case group was significantly lower than that in the control group(9.17 % to 54.13%,c2 = 50.911, P<0.05;OR=0.086(95% CI:0.040-0.182)). The vaccine efficacy of two doses of inactivated EV71 vaccine was 91.44% (95% CI:81.8%-96%). Conclusion The inactivated EV71 vaccine has a good protective effect on hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by EV71. The vaccination of EV71 inactivated vaccine should be continuously promoted.
    2022,33(3):41-46, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To analyze the differences in the incidence of malignant tumors among urban and rural residents in Shenyang from 2013 to 2018. Methods From 2013 to 2018, the incidence data of malignant tumors of residents with household registration from national cancer surveillance sites in Shenyang urban area and rural Kangping and Faku counties were extracted. Crude incidence rate, age-standardized rate (standardized rate by Chinese population, standardized rate by world population), age specific incidence rate, cumulative incidence rate (0-74 years old), and truncated incidence rate (35-64 years old) were respectively calculated. SPSS23.0 software was used to carry out chi square test for the incidence of disease in urban and rural areas and in different age groups. Joinpoint 3.5.3 software was used to analyze the incidence trend in urban and rural areas. Results From 2013 to 2018, the age-standardized rate of cancer incidence by Chinese population(2000)and the cumulative rate of 0-74 years old in urban residents of Shenyang City were 199.85/105 and 22.21%, respectively, which were higher than those in rural residents, 172.84/105 and 19.85%, respectively. The incidence rate of cancer in males and females in urban area was higher than that in rural areas (c2=262.47,c2=103.83, P<0.05). The incidence rates in urban males and females and in rural females all showed an increasing trend in the past 6 years (APC=3.06%, APC=4.03%,APC=3.28% , P<0.05). The top five malignant tumors of urban males were lung cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer and bladder cancer, while the top five malignant tumors of rural males were lung cancer, esophageal cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer, respectively. The top five malignant tumors of urban women were breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, thyroid cancer and cervical cancer, while the malignant tumors of rural women were lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cervical cancer and liver cancer, respectively. Conclusion From 2013 to 2018, the incidence of malignant tumor in urban residents in Shenyang is higher than that in rural areas. The incidence rates of urban males and females and rural females have showed an upward trend year by year in the past 6 years. There is a large difference in the order of tumor incidence between urban and rural men and women.
    2022,33(3):47-51, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To analyze the trend of death level and the probability of premature death caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Jinshan District of Shanghai from 1980 to 2020, and to provide reference for the formulation of prevention and control measures of COPD. Methods The death cases of COPD in Jinshan District from 1980 to 2020 were collected through the death cause registration information system. The crude mortality, standardized mortality, age group mortality, early death probability and annual change percentage in different periods were calculated. Results From 1980 to 2020, the crude mortality of COPD in Jinshan District was 154.38/100 000, and the standardized mortality was 82.66/100,000. In the past 41 years, the standardized mortality of COPD showed a downward trend in males and females (APC=-1.79%, -2.52%, P<0.001). In the same period, the mortality of COPD in subjects aged 30-69 years old and subjects aged 70 years old and above also decreased (APC=-8.79%, -4.79%, P<0.001), and the probability of premature death caused by COPD showed a downward trend in males and females (APC=-9.61%, -10.71%, P<0.001). Conclusion The mortality rate and the probability of premature death of COPD in Jinshan District have decreased in the past 41 years. However, COPD is still one of the major chronic diseases that pose a serious threat to the health of residents in Jinshan District. Comprehensive prevention and treatment measures should be taken to reduce the mortality and the probability of premature death of COPD.
    2022,33(3):52-56, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To analyze the equity of the allocation of oral medical resources and the accessibility of health service capabilities in Wuhan. Methods The equity of oral medical resources was calculated with Gini coefficient and Theil index, accessibility was assessed by two-step floating catchment area model, and the spatial autocorrelation was used to study the high-low clustering of accessibility. Results The Gini coefficient of oral medical resources based on population level was around 0.3, and the Gini coefficient of oral medical resources based on geographic area was greater than 0.6. Theil index calculation results were similar. In terms of overall accessibility, the area with poor accessibility was 2,428 square kilometers, reaching 28.38% of the total area, while the area with better accessibility accounted for 14.18%. Conclusion The allocation of oral medical care resources based on population distribution was fairer and better than that based on geographic area. Moreover, the geographical accessibility varies greatly between regions, showing the characteristics of high-high cluster and low-low cluster.
    2022,33(3):57-59, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To understand the hygienic status of rural drinking water quality in Liuzhou City from 2018 to 2020, and to provide basic data for the government to formulate relevant policies. Methods The monitoring data of rural drinking water from 2018 to 2020 in Liuzhou City was collected and statistically analyzed. Results A total of 1 877 rural drinking water samples were collected from 2018-2020. The total qualification rate of the monitored samples was 69.26% (1 300/1 877). By chi-square test, the qualification rate of the water samples in different years showed an upward trend (χ2 =39.548,P=0.000). The qualification rate in dry season (63.59%) was significantly lower than that in flood season (75.11%) (χ2 =29.240,P=0.000). The qualification rate of microbiological indicators (71.12%) was obviously lower than that of other indicators, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2 =1.062,P=0.000). The qualification rate of finished water (69.44%) was slightly higher than that of tap water, but the difference was not statistically significant (χ2 =0.037,P=0.848). Conclusion Microbial contamination is the main hygienic problem in rural drinking water quality in Liuzhou area, which should be paid attention to by relevant authorities.
    2022,33(3):60-62, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) positive children in Jiangsu, and to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of RSV infection. Methods A total of 11 574 children with respiratory tract infection from June 2018 to June 2020 were selected. RSV antigen was detected by direct immunofluorescence assay in all children. Other 6 kinds of respiratory viruses were detected in RSV positive specimens to understand the mixed infection. Results The positive rate of RSV in 11 574 samples was 12.34%(1 428/11 574), and the male to female ratio of RSV positive children was 1.92:1 (915/476). The detection rate of male children (12.79%) was significantly higher than that of female children (10.77%)(χ2 =10.951, P<0.05). The positive rate of RSV in infants aged 1-12 months was significantly higher than that in infants aged over 12 months (χ2 =27.48, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in RSV positive rate between 12-24 months group, 24-36 months group, 36-month-old group and 6-12 years group (P>0.05). The positive rate of RSV from November to March was significantly higher than that from other months (χ2 =9.451, P<0.05). The highest positive rate was 2 months (16.99%). Of the 1428 RSV-positive cases, 148 were co-infected with at least one other respiratory virus, accounting for 10.36%(148/1 428) of the RSV-positive cases. Among them, 117 cases were double infection and 31 cases were triple infection. RSV combined with PIV3 infection was the most common in 39 cases (26.35%). Conclusion RSV positive children are mainly concentrated in infants under 12 months of age in Jiangsu province, and the incidence is high from November to March. The protection of infants under 12 months of age should be strengthened, especially in hospitalized cases and male cases, which are often mixed with infection.
    2022,33(3):63-67, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To analyze the relationship between follow-up service, personal characteristics, lifestyle and blood sugar management of diabetic patients in Gansu Province, and put forward scientific suggestions on influencing blood sugar management of diabetic patients. Methods Based on the data of the 6th National Health Service Questionnaire, 273 subjects were included. Chi-square test and unconditional logistic regression were used to analyze the blood glucose control and its influencing factors of diabetic patients. Results A total of 39.56% patients' blood sugar status was well controlled. 76.92% patients signed up for family doctor service, and 77.66% patients took hypoglycemic drugs according to the law of doctor's advice. There were significant differences in blood sugar control among patients in different regions, educational levels and occupational types (P <0.05) , logistic regression analysis showed that Hui patients (OR=0.21), doctors without family contract (OR=2.86) and patients taking hypoglycemic drugs intermittently (OR = 6.58). Conclusion The blood sugar control rate of diabetic patients in Gansu is low, and the nationality, contracted family doctors and medication plan affect the blood sugar control level of patients. In order to ensure the high efficiency of follow-up treatment, the related follow-up services provided by primary medical institutions, it is necessary to provide self-management programs that meet the individual characteristics and meet the needs of the disease.
    2022,33(3):68-71, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To analyze the relationship between follow-up service, personal characteristics, lifestyle and blood sugar management of diabetic patients in Gansu Province, and put forward scientific suggestions on influencing blood sugar management of diabetic patients. Methods Based on the data of the 6th National Health Service Questionnaire, 273 subjects were included. Chi-square test and unconditional logistic regression were used to analyze the blood glucose control and its influencing factors of diabetic patients. Results A total of 39.56% patients' blood sugar status was well controlled. 76.92% patients signed up for family doctor service, and 77.66% patients took hypoglycemic drugs according to the law of doctor's advice. There were significant differences in blood sugar control among patients in different regions, educational levels and occupational types (P <0.05) , logistic regression analysis showed that Hui patients (OR=0.21), doctors without family contract (OR=2.86) and patients taking hypoglycemic drugs intermittently (OR = 6.58). Conclusion The blood sugar control rate of diabetic patients in Gansu is low, and the nationality, contracted family doctors and medication plan affect the blood sugar control level of patients. In order to ensure the high efficiency of follow-up treatment, the related follow-up services provided by primary medical institutions, it is necessary to provide self-management programs that meet the individual characteristics and meet the needs of the disease.
    2022,33(3):72-75, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To evaluate the construction effect of a national comprehensive prevention and control demonstration area for chronic diseases in a banner county in Inner Mongolia, and to provide a scientific basis for deepening the construction of the demonstration area and improving the formulation of chronic disease prevention and control strategies and measures. Methods Using the chronic disease nutrition monitoring data of residents aged 18 and over in a banner county in Inner Mongolia in 2015 and 2018, the prevalence, awareness, and management and treatment rates of the main chronic diseases of residents with different characteristics, as well as the changes in healthy behaviors and lifestyles were compared and analyzed. SPSS25.0 software was used for data analysis. The classification variables were mainly described by rate and composition ratio. The comparison of rates of various indicators between the two years was performed using c2 test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze statistical correlation between the continuous construction of the demonstration area from 2015 to 2018 and the various indicators. The test level was α=0.05. Results In 2015 and 2018, 621 and 600 residents aged 18 and above were investigated respectively. The prevalence of diabetes (8.17%) and the prevalence of dyslipidemia (28.13%) of residents in the demonstration area in 2018 were lower than those in the demonstration area in 2015 (12.08% and54.91%, respectively), and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In 2018, the diabetes awareness rate (71.43%), diabetes treatment rate (71.43%), diabetes management rate (38.78%), and dyslipidemia awareness rate (51.50%) of residents in the demonstration area were higher than those in the demonstration area in 2015 (42.67%, 42.67%, 13.33%, and 31.09%, respectively), and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In 2018, the current smoking rate (20.83%) of residents in the demonstration area, the drinking rate within one year (31.67%), insufficient intake of fresh vegetables (51.00%), and excessive intake of edible salt (47.83%) were all lower than those of residents in the demonstration area in 2015 (30.43%, 45.57%, 71.18%, and 78.42%, respectively), and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the continuous construction of the demonstration area was statistically correlated with dyslipidemia (OR=0.31, 95%CI: 0.24-0.39), diabetes awareness (OR=3.92, 95%CI: 1.68-9.12), diabetes treatment ( OR=4.53, 95%CI: 1.75-11.70), diabetes management (OR=5.82, 95%CI: 1.94-17.52), awareness of dyslipidemia (OR=1.57, 95%CI: 1.04-2.38), current smoking (OR =0.60, 95%CI: 0.44-0.82), drinking within one year (OR=0.46, 95%CI: 0.35-0.61), and insufficient intake of fresh vegetables (OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.35-0.58). Conclusion The construction of a national demonstration zone for comprehensive prevention and control of chronic diseases can significantly reduce the prevalence of major chronic diseases among residents in a banner county in Inner Mongolia, improve the self-management level of patients with chronic diseases, and promote the development of healthy behaviors and lifestyles.
    2022,33(3):76-80, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To investigate the epidemiological and pathogenic characteristics of viral diarrhea in Minhang District, Shanghai. Methods Random sampling on diarrhea was conducted in intestinal outpatient departments of 2 sentinel hospitals according to a certain sampling interval in Minhang District,Shanghai from 2014 to 2020. Real time PCR technology was used to detect Rotavirus, Norovirus, adenovirus, Astrovirus and Sapovirus in fecal samples. Results A total of 646 out of 1 839 stool specimenswere tested positive, and the positive rate was 35.13%.Five pathogenic viruses were detected , mostly norovirus (421 cases, 65.17%) followed by rotavirus (151 cases, 23.37%).The positive rate of norovirus was higher in the age group of 20- 69 years, and the positive rate of Rotavirus was higher in the age group of 0- 9 years. Conclusions Norovirus and rotavirus accounted for the majority of reported infection diarrhea cases in MinhangDistrict of Shanghai from 2014 to 2020, with significant seasonal peaks. Tailored prevention and control measures should be carried out, particularly in risk seasons.
    2022,33(3):81-84, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognostic risk factors of helicobacter pylori (Hp) infected patients under 30 years old, and to provide a theoretical basis for the eradication of Hp in young Hp-positive patients under 30 years old. Methods A total of 565 patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms admitted to our hospital from December 2017 to December 2020 were selected. All patients were Hp positive, and all patients were treated with quadruple eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori. According to the Hp negative status after treatment, the patients were divided into good prognosis group (Hp negative, n=374) and poor prognosis group (Hp not negative, n=191). A self-made questionnaire was used to analyze the age, gender, familial history of gastrointestinal diseases, life habits (long-term smoking, and drinking), eating habits (irregular diet, and excitant food), DOB baseline value, and treatment compliance of the two groups. Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors that may affect the prognosis of HP positive patients. Results Among the 565 Hp positive patients, 347 were males and 218 were females, with an average age of (23.49±4.29) years, 393 (69.56%) aged 18-24 years old and 172 (30.44%) aged 25-29 years old. The diagnosis results of upper gastrointestinal diseases were 54 cases of gastric cancer (9.56%), 229 cases of peptic ulcer (40.53%), 174 cases of chronic gastritis (30.80%), and 108 cases of reflux esophagitis (19.12%). There were no significant differences in age, sex, family history of gastrointestinal diseases and alcoholism between the two groups (P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in long-term smoking, irregular diet, preference for stimulating food, treatment compliance and baseline value of DOB (P<0.05). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that long-term smoking, poor treatment compliance and high DOB value were independent risk factors affecting the prognosis of Hp positive patients (P<0.05). Conclusion Chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer are the main upper gastrointestinal diseases in Hp-positive young patients under 30 years old. Long-term smoking, poor treatment compliance and high DOB value are independent risk factors affecting the prognosis of patients. Treatment compliance of patients should be improved, and intervention should be strengthened in patients with high DOB value and smoking.
    2022,33(3):85-89, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective Due to the decline of gastrointestinal function, the intakes of various dietary nutrients in the elderly population are reduced to varying degrees. Among them, the reduction in vitamins and trace mineral elements is relatively greater, resulting in relative increases in the intake of carbohydrates, proteins and fats and an increased risk of development of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods In order to reduce the risk of MS in the elderly population, it is necessary to limit the intakes of the three major energy-supplying nutrients, mainly carbohydrates. The effects of vitamins and trace elements on MS are still controversial, and it is recommended to ensure normal intake. Dietary fiber has positive effects on gastrointestinal function, immune response, and glucolipid metabolism. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the intake. Results Mediterranean diet is currently confirmed to have a good effect on the prevention of MS, and the diet consists mainly of beans, nuts, vegetables and fruits, with appropriate intakes of cereals, seafood and dairy products. Plant-based diet based on vegetables, mushrooms and bean products is also beneficial to improving blood glucose and blood lipids, thereby preventing the occurrence and progression of MS. Owing to the significant differences in dietary habits, health status and dietary structure among the elderly population in different regions, the significance of single and specific dietary patterns for the prevention of MS is still low. Conclusion It will become a development trend to formulate diversified and individualized dietary regimen through the reasonable increases or limitations of corresponding food intakes according to different individual nutritional levels.
    2022,33(3):90-93, DOI:
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    Objective To analyze the prevalence and risk factors of hyperuricemia (HUA) in Shenyang City, and to provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of HUA in this region. Methods From January 2013 to December 2020, 98,327 subjects who underwent physical examination in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in Shenyang were selected. The detection rate of HUA was calculated, and the risk factors of HUA were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results From 2013 to 2020, the overall prevalence of HUA was 22.48%, 30.75% in males and 9.13% in females. The prevalence rate in the male was significantly higher than that in the female (P<0.05). Except for a slight decrease in 2015 and 2020, the total prevalence rate showed an increasing trend year by year. With the increase of age, the prevalence of HUA in males decreased, while in females, it decreased slightly from 40 to 59 years old and increased significantly after 60 years old. With the increase of BMI (Body Mass Index), the prevalence of HUA also increased, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that male, body mass index, physical examination year, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, triglyceride, LDL-C, abnormal liver and renal function were positively correlated with HUA, while age and HDL-C were negatively correlated with HUA. Conclusion HUA occurs mainly in male people among physical examination population in Shenyang. With the increase of BMI, HUA increases.
    2022,33(3):94-97, DOI:
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    Objective To study the applicability of two different occupational health risk assessment methods for noise positions in a beer manufacturing enterprise. Methods An occupational health investigation along with the detection of occupational hazard factors were carried out in the workplace of a beer manufacturing enterprise in Wuhan. Workers with 8-hour working day equivalent sound level (LEX,8 h) ≥ 80 dB (A) were selected as research subjects. The "Guidelines for Noise Occupational Disease Risk Management" method and occupational hazard risk index method were used to assess the risk of noise jobs in the beer manufacturing company. The assessment results of the two methods were compared. Results The noise exposure level of the enterprise was between 81.2 and 91.2dB(A). The guideline method predicted that the risk of high-frequency hearing loss and noise deafness for wine bottling workers and labelers on the bottling production line was high after 35 years exposure to noise. Washing,inspection and boxing on the bottling production line and bottling up on the canning production line were at medium risk, and others were at low risk. The evaluation results of the occupational hazard risk index method showed that the bottlers, bottling workers, wine inspectors, labelers and boxers on the bottling production line were at medium risk, and other positions were at low risk. Conclusion The occupational hazard risk index method is more comprehensive to consider all the factors of health risk, and the evaluation results are close to the "Guidelines for Noise Occupational Disease Risk Management" method. The guideline method can quantitatively predict the risk of high-frequency hearing loss and noise deafness, and the risk of hearing loss increases with the extension of years of noise exposure.
    2022,33(3):98-100, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To analyze the detection level and distribution characteristics of occupational contraindications in pre-employment occupational health examination, and to provide a reference for relevant management departments to strengthen the control of personnel exposed to occupational hazards. Methods The data of pre-employment occupational health examination of 2 626 workers in a vehicle manufacturing enterprise from September 2018 to December 2020 were collected. The detection rate of occupational contraindications was calculated according to the judgement standard, and the distribution of occupational contraindications in different gender, length of service and age was analyzed. Results The detection rate of occupational contraindications was 13.71%, and there was no significant difference between the genders. The detection rate in the 40-45 years old group was the highest (31.75%), and the difference among the different age groups was statistically significant (χ2 = 30.16, P< 0.01). Among the workers with different length of occupational employment, the detection rate was the highest in the group with 20-25 working years (30.65%), and the difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 30.20, P< 0.01). Conclusion Relevant departments should strengthen the occupational health supervision and management of vehicle manufacturing enterprises and urge enterprises to pay attention to the pre-job occupational health examination as well as the health of workers.
    2022,33(3):101-103, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To investigate the correlation between the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children and the intake of dietary nutrients. Methods A total of 81 children aged 8-12 (34 males and 47 females) with fluorosis were randomly selected in the districts of Daxu, Fuping, and Fuyang in Shaanxi Province where the drinking water had been changed for more than 5 years. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was carried out using Dean's method. According to the 1:1 case-control study method, 81 children aged 8-12 (34 males and 47 females) without dental fluorosis were selected as a control group. A "double meal method" was employed for dietary investigation for 3 consecutive days. The differences in dietary nutrient intake between the two groups of children were analyzed and compared. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the difference in the dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus, and selenium in the fluorosis group was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The logistic regression analysis of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children showed that the dietary nutrient magnesium was associated with the onset of dental fluorosis. Conclusion Within a certain range, dietary magnesium is a protective factor for children with dental fluorosis. It is suggested that school-age children in areas with excessive water fluoride should be supplemented with sufficient magnesium in their diets.
    2022,33(3):104-108, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective The knowledge of cervical cancer prevention and control,the cognition of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and the willingness to vaccinate HPV vaccine among college students in Xiangyang were investigated and analyzed to provide a reliable scientific basis for the primary prevention of cervical cancer prevention and control in Xiangyang. Methods By means of stratified sampling method and self-made questionnaire, this paper conducted a questionnaire survey among college students in 3 universities in Xiangyang. Results A total of 8 523 college students participated in the questionnaire survey, and 4 473 of them had sufficient knowledge of cervical cancer prevention and control and HPV vaccine, with the awareness rate of 52.48%. Male students, rural residents and non-medical majors were the influencing factors of insufficient knowledge of cervical cancer prevention and control and HPV vaccine. Among the 6 459 female college students who participated in the survey, 5,993 (92.79%) were willing to be vaccinated, and 859 (13.30%) were already vaccinated. Major, educational background, living expenses and cognitive scores were the influencing factors of HPV vaccination intention. Conclusion College students in Xiangyang City are relatively deficient in the knowledge of cervical cancer prevention and control and HPV vaccine. Targetable science popularization and education can improve college students' correct understanding of cervical cancer prevention and control knowledge, promote the HPV vaccine vaccination plan, and reduce the occurrence of HPV-related diseases and cervical cancer.
    2022,33(3):109-112, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To analyze the effect of HIV/AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the first time in Jiangyin, and to provide a reference for further improvement of Jiangyin's AIDS antiretroviral treatment. Methods The historical cards and related information in the treatment management database of Jiangyin City's cases who received ART for the first time from 2005 to 2019 were collected and statistically analyzed. The changes in viral load and CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD4 cells) before and after treatment were compared. Results Among 652 patients receiving ART, 507 cases (77.76%) were successful in virological treatment. The median natural change rate of annual average CD4 cell count was 90.8 cells/μL/year (χ2 =37.915, P<0.05; H=9.781, P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in virological treatment and immune recovery between different age groups (χ2 =10.713, P<0.05; H =10.394, P<0.05) and different baseline CD4 count layers. The results showed that age and baseline CD4 value were the influencing factors of treatment effect. Conclusion Age and baseline CD4 value can affect the effect of ART treatment. The older the age and the lower the baseline CD4 value, the worse the virological efficacy and the recovery effect of CD4 cells. It is suggested that the infected patients should be involved in ART in time, which is conducive to shorten the time of initial treatment and further improve the effect of antiviral treatment.
    2022,33(3):113-117, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To investigate the current status and its influencing factors of ART coverage and VL inhibition rate of HIV/AIDS in Yining City, Xinjiang, and to provide reference for AIDS prevention and treatment. Methods The ART data for 2017-2019 years in Yining, Xinjiang was retrieved from the National AIDS Antiretroviral Treatment Information System, to analyze the changing trend of ART coverage rate and VL inhibition rate of HIV/AIDS. Logistics regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of untreated HIV/AIDS and uninhibited VL. Results The coverage rate of antiviral treatment in Yining city from 2017 to 2019 was 73.39%, 78.06% and 87.03%, respectively. The inhibition rates of VL were 83.91%, 85.05% and 86.09%, respectively, showing an increasing trend year by year. Female, other transmission routes, positive sexual partner detection, and testing and special investigation reduced the risks of untreated HIV/AIDS, while other domicile locations, non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual contact, and unawareness of their own VL increased the risks of untreated HIV/AIDS. Female, 26-35 years old, 36-45 years old, 46~55 years old, >55 years old, primary school, junior high school, high school or technical secondary school, junior college or above, and male-male sex behavior reduced the risks of unsuppressed VL of HIV/AIDS, while other domicile locations, non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual contact, and unawareness of their own VL increased the risks of unsuppressed VL in HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The ART coverage rate and VL inhibition rate in Yining, Xinjiang rise year by year, approaching the expected target. Targeted education and supervision should be conducted to promote the realization of "90-90-90" in 2020 and "95-95-95" target in 2030.
    2022,33(3):118-122, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Iron is an important trace element in human body. It is involved in heme synthesis, myelin sheath formation, mitochondrial respiratory chain electron transfer, DNA replication, repair,epigenetic control and so on. In order to maintain iron homeostasis, the body maintains iron balance by regulating the absorption of dietary iron by intestinal cells, recovery of iron by macrophages and storage of iron in liver cells. These iron metabolism regulation processes involve sophisticated cellular and molecular regulatory systems. When iron homeostasis is broken, both iron deficiency and iron overload will result in damage to the body. In this review, we review the research progress on the absorption, distribution and recovery of iron, the cellular and molecular regulatory mechanisms of iron metabolism and the consequences of iron homeostasis imbalance.
    2022,33(3):123-126, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To review the status of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits and the progress of risk assessment, and to provide data support for pesticide residue research, residents' dietary exposure risks and safety risk management. Methods Domestic and international literature and research data available are reviewed and analyzed. Results This article mainly reviews the literature on the investigation of current status of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits. It also discusses several methods and models that have been widely employed in the dietary exposure risk assessment of pesticide residues worldwide. Conclusion Pesticide residues have been frequently reported in vegetables and fruits, mainly including organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues. The relevant risk assessment results indicate that different groups of people, especially those with high exposure, have cumulative dietary exposure risks to pesticides in vegetables and fruits. Although most pesticide residues have been detected at low concentrations in vegetables and fruits, they have potential toxicity risks and require continuous attention.

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        Sponsor:湖北省卫生厅
        Publishing Institute:《公共卫生与预防医学》编辑部
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        International Standard Serial Number:1006-2483
        CN:42-1734/R

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